Dining Room Rug,Turkish Bedroom Carpet,Living Room Rug,Hand Made Kitchen Rug,Genuine Company Rug,Vintage Study Room Rug 8' 5'' x 3' 8'' MEZ\u0130

Dining Room RugTurkish Bedroom CarpetLiving Room RugHand. Dining Room Rug,Turkish Bedroom Carpet,Living Room Rug,Hand Made Kitchen Rug,Genuine Company Rug,Vintage Study Room Rug 8 5 x 3 8 MEZİ Runner rug Vintage area rug Living Room Rug is clean and ready for using. Dining Room Carpet is hand made and vintage Due to its vintage nature, there will be. Dining Room Rug,Turkish Bedroom Carpet,Living Room Rug,Hand Made Kitchen Rug,Genuine Company Rug,Vintage Study Room Rug 8' 5'' x 3' 8'' MEZİ。Runner rug。Vintage area rug。Living Room Rug is clean and ready for using.。Dining Room Carpet is hand made and vintage。Due to its vintage nature, there will be signs of aging, which isn't considered flaw but character。These rugs are vintage so some rugs may show slight imperfections but I do my best to picture the quality and color scheme of all my rugs.。One of a kind, % 100 Hand Knotted Genuine,Unique Turkish Rug !!!。Photos of the rug may differ from screen to screen !!!。You will receive exactly rug as pictured, I Don't make any photoshop or etc..,you see the totally naturally picture of the rug!!!。One can use it as a entrance rug,for kids room,living room,nursery,dining room,living room,kitchen,outdoors,indoors,entrway,bedroom,bathroom or would be very good gift loved ones !!!。Please note that images may be displayed differently on different monitors.。We Ship Our Rugs Directly From Turkey !!!。You Will Receive Same Rug In The Pictures !!!。Rug Comes From Smoke Free and Pet Free Area。SIZE IN FEET: 8' 5'' X 3' 8''。SIZE IN CENTIMETERS: 260 X 115。SIZE IN INCHES: 102 X 45。I will ship your rug by very well known shipping couirier like ups-tnt。Rug will arrive you within 5 business days with tracking information.。I have taken all the pictures of the rug outdoors,in daylight ,without flash !!!。Feel free for any question,,you may have,I will respond you as soon as possible !。I accept returns,in case of dissatisfaction !!!。I AM GRATEFUL FOR YOUR SUPPORT THE HANDCRAFT AND MY SMALL BUSINESS,BELINDA !!。IF YOU LIKE TO SEE MORE PILE RUGS, PLEASE VISIT:。IF YOU LIKE TO SEE MORE KILIM RUGS, PLEASE VISIT:。IF YOU LIKE TO SEE MORE GOATSKINS-SHEEPSKINS,PLEASE VISIT:。IF YOU LIKE TO SEE MORE BEDSPREADS - TABLE COVERS,PLEASE VISIT:。IF YOU LIKE TO SEE MORE WALL HANGING RUGS TAPESTRY, PLEASE VISIT:。IF YOU LIKE TO SEE MORE RUNNER RUGS,PLEASE VIST:。IF YOU LIKE TO SEE MORE COWHIDES,PLEASE VISIT:。Turkish Carpets。Various Well-Known Anatolian Rugs。There are different types of rugs produced in Turkey and they are classified according to the materials used:。Silk on silk。Wool on cotton。Wool on wool。Viscose on cotton。Kilims。Tulu。Anatolian Turkish Rugs。At present, it is impossible to prove exactly when and where rug weaving began, as there is no。reliable source, but it can be traced back as early the Neolithic age (7000 B.C.). The first examples consisting of warp and weft were textile products which resembled flat weave kilims. Then rugs were created by forming knots to make a pile. According to scientist, rug weaving must have originated in the dry steppe regions where the nomadic tribes lived. Central Asia was a suitable location for the first rug-weaving center because of the availability of land for herding sheep and because of the climate of the region.。Rugs have been used in the home as floor coverings, blankets, tablecloths and decorations. They acquire value as they are used, whereas most objects decrease in value over time.。The oldest example known in the history of hand-make rugs is the one which is exhibited in the St. Petersburg Hermitage Museum in Russia. This fantastic Altai rug was discovered by the Russian archaeologist Sergei Rudenko in the year 1949 and is known as the "Pazirik Rug", woven around the 3rd century B.C. The majority of experts believe that there is a link between ancient Turkish culture and this particular rug; they also believe that the other items found in the Pazirik Tumulus have some connection to Turkish civilization.。Nomadic rugRug weaving in Anatolia first began with the arrival of the Turkish tribes from Central Asia, who settled in this region. Therefore, Anatolian rugs form a branch of ethnic Turkish rugs. Some of the oldest examples known are the eighteen surviving pieces woven by the Selcuk Turks in the 13th century. The motifs in these pieces represented in stylized floral and geometrical patterns in several basic colors and were woven in Sivas, Kayseri and Konya.。The art of rug weaving which began with the Selcuks continued with the Ottoman Turks. After the Selcuk Turks and before the Ottomans, during the transition period in the 14th century, animal figures began to appear on the rugs. Although very few of these exist today, they can be seen in the paintings of famous Italian, French and Dutch painters. Due to the animal figures on these rugs, they are called as "Rugs with Animals".。By the 15th century there was a wider variety of animal motifs on the rugs. A new group of rugs with a combination of animal motifs and geometrical patterns appeared around this time. These rugs were called "Holbein Rugs" since they appear in paintings by the German artist Hans Holbein. As there are no surviving examples of these rugs today, all research is carried out from the paintings. The works of artists such as Lotto, Memling, Carlo Crivelli, Rafaellino de Gardo, B.Van Orley, Carpaccio, Jaume Huguet were also important sources of research. In this century, Bergama and Usak became important weaving centers in western Anatolia.。The 16th century was the beginning of the second successful period of Anatolian rug-weaving. The rugs from this period are called "Classical Ottoman Rugs". The reason these rugs are called "Palace rugs" is that the design and colors would have been determined by the palace artists and then sent to the weaving centers. this method was similar to that used in the ceramic tile production of that period.。The designs, which consisted of twisting branches, leaves and flowers such as tulips, carnations and hyacinths, are woven in a naturalistic style and establish the basic composition of the rug. This style was continued in other regions and can be seen in Turkish rugs today.。In the 16th, 17th and 18th century, Gördes, Kula, Milas, Ladik, Mucur, Kirsehir, Bandirma and Canakkale gained importance as rug-weaving centers, along with Usak and Bergama. The rugs woven in some of these areas are known as "Transylvanian Rugs" because they were found in churches in Transylvania.。In the beginning of the 19th and 20th centuries, the rugs woven in Hereke (nearby Istanbul) gained worldwide recognition. These rugs were originally woven only for the Sultans of the Ottoman Empire. The finest silk rugs in the world are still being woven in Hereke today.。We can identify the rugs woven in different regions as town or village rugs. The rugs woven in the agricultural areas of Anatolia owe their origins to the settlers or nomadic cultures. In Europe, these rugs (which are woven with wool on wool) are generally called "Anatolian Rugs" In towns where people have settled permanently, the rugs are woven with a wool on cotton combination.。Today in Turkey there are regions which keep this wonderful tradition alive; such rugs are woven in Konya, Kayseri, Sivas, Hereke, Yagcioglu, Kula, Dösemealti, Taspinar, Isparta, Milas, Bergama, Canakkale, Kars, Usak, Gordes, Fethiye and Yahyali.。The Craft of Weaving Rugs。A rug is a handicraft which consist of two parts; the skeleton of the rug, which is formed by vertical and horizontal threads called "warps" and "wefts" and the part which resembles a picture and is like velvet, which is called the "pile" of the rug, made by knotting different colors of thread. In order to form motifs, there are two knotting techniques:。Turkish double knot Symmetrical knotting, double or Turkish knotting. Each knot is made on two warps. In this form of knotting, each end of the pile thread is wrapped all the way around the two warps, pulled down and cut.。Non-symmetrical or single (Persian) knotting. While one end of the thread is wrapped all the way around the warp, the other end goes just beside the other warp. Then both ends are pulled down and cut.。Persian single knotThe steps for weaving a carpet are written below:。The weaving is started from the bottom of the loom. First the kilim part (flat woven part) is woven at the lower edge.。The weaver then takes a piece of wool which corresponds with the pattern and forms a knot on two warps.。Then she cuts the surplus wool with a knife.。After one row of knotting is completed, she then passes a weft thread in between the front and back warps. The weft threads are used to strengthen the weaves of the carpet.。Then she will take the "kirkit" (a heavy comb like tool) and vigorously beat down the row of knots and weft, in order to obtain the desired tightness and to make the knots and weft compact.。Following this step, with a pair of adjustable scissors she cuts the surplus colored threads to obtain a uniform level of pile thickness.。This process is continued until the carpet is complete.。Dyes。There are two types of dyes which are used to dye wool for weaving: vegetable dyes and chemical dyes. Rugs which are made using natural dyes are the most preferred. The natural dyes are obtained from three sources: plants; animals; and minerals. Plant sources are used most widely in rug production. Some of the examples of colors obtained from plants and animal sources are: red (RUBIA TINTORIA); yellow (GENISTA TINTORIA); navy blue (ISOTIS TINCTORIA and INDIGO FERETINTORIA); gray and black (OVER LUS); brown (JUNGLAND REGIA); and red (DACHYLOPIUS COCUS). Dyeing threads by using sources from nature is an art which has been practiced since ancient times. Anatolia has a large variety of plants available for dyeing purposes and this is where the craft of dyeing has been improved throughout centuries of experience. Plants gathered from natural sources are still widely used today.。Motifs。There are many different types of motifs and emblems which can be seen on the rugs. These are classified into two groups:。Geometrical or Stylized Motifs。Naturalistic and Floral Designs。The motif on the rugs represent Anatolia and Central Asia and their civilizations. These compositions, motifs, and designs represent the origins and culture of a society; therefore, a rug can be considered a cultural item. Each of the designs is meaningful, not an accidental drawing. To understand the meaning of every motif would be a very long and tiring process, as there are so many of them which have accumulated throughout the centuries. The motifs on the rugs represent Anatolia, Central Asia and their civilizations. Some of the most common motifs on rugs are the TREE OF LIFE symbolizing long life and re-birth; the HORNS OF ANIMALS which symbolize power; HANDS ON HIPS symbolizing female fertility and the mother of God; and the HANGING CANDLE symbolizing the holy (eternal) light.。RUG CARE AND CLEANING FOR HAND-KNOTTED RUGS。Never use bleach or foor polishers on the rugs.。Spot cleaning when spills happen:。• Act Fast。• BLOT – NEVER RUB。• Clean stain – Edge to Center。• Do Not SOAK。• Pat and Fan Dry。• Brush Pile with a soft brush。If food or liquids spill onto a carpet, blot up the spill as soon as possible. Use only club soda。and a clean white towel to soak up the spill. Do not soak the stain. Don't rub, as this will。spread the stain. Work the stain from the outer edge to the center. Dry with a fan or hand。blow dryer, preferably on a low heat setting. Finally, to restore the pile, brush it with a soft。brush. On old and stubborn stains, repeat the process until the stain is completely removed.。Cornstarch can be used to soak up liquid after cleaning. Sprinkle a thin (1/8”) layer of。cornstarch on rug and let it dry for 24 – 48 hours. Vacuum and whisk away excess.。Spills such as mustard, blood and mud should be allowed to dry and then scraped off.。Failure to dry the carpet properly can cause mold, mildew and dry rot with signifcant。damage.。Special Stains:。Chewing Gum – Press ice cubes against spot until it becomes brittle and breaks off. Use spot。remover to vanish last traces. Saturate the spot with a cloth soaked in vinegar or alcohol.。Candle Wax – Place a brown paper bag over the spot. Place a hot iron over the paper bag.。Move iron constantly. Wait a few minutes until the wax is absorbed. Repeat if necessary.。Ink from ballpoint pen – Saturate the spot with hairspray. Allow to dry. Blot lightly with。vinegar and water solution.。Deep cleaning:。Periodically, every 2 to 3 years, the hand-knotted rug should be cleaned by a professional in a。full immersion wet bath and it will be refreshed and look like new. Hand-knotted rugs can。be wet-cleaned in this fashion as opposed to hand-tufted rugs that can only be spot cleaned.。Moths: Regular maintenance is the best way to keep your wool rugs from being damaged by。moths. Periodic cleaning, moth proofng and rotating rugs are a good way to prevent moth。larva from taking hold and damaging your fne rugs. When inspecting rugs for moth activity,。remember that most moth damage is to the back of a rug where moths are least likely to be。disturbed. So examine the back of the rug along its perimeter and look for moths, moth larvae。or the casing or webbing they leave behind.。Fading in Sunlight: Colors fade unevenly and wool and cotton dry out and become brittle. A。good rug can be faded in a month or less. When colors are softer or lighter on the pile side of。the rug than they are on the back, it means that fading is occurring. You can eliminate or。prevent the problem by keeping the curtains closed or by having your windows。professionally coated with mylar (an invisible flm which can be applied to your windows。and which flters out harmful ultraviolet light).。Note: Never put a potted plant on a rug as the water can leak onto the rug and damage it.。Disclaimer: For diffcult or unlisted stains, please consult with a professional rug cleaner.。Never use dry cleaning methods on a wool rug. Never “steam clean” a wool rug as this may。cause dyes to bleed. The rugs should be wet-cleaned by a professional, thoroughly rinsed。and allowed to dry completely before being placed on the foor again.。Important: Vacuum your rug regularly. Sand and grit can work into the base of the pile and。abrasion can damage the wool and result in loss of pile. Vacuum only with suction, never use。a beater bar on a wool rug. DO NOT USE DYSON VACUUM CLEANERS OR ANY OTHER。VACUUM THAT HAS POWERFUL SUCTION. THESE VACUUMS CAN DAMAGE THE。RUG.。These stain removal tips are to be used only as a guide for your personal use.。Rug Motifs, Symbols & Meaning。There are so many different symbols and motifs found in Rugs and Kilims across the world, most of which date back hundreds of years but are still being used by carpet weavers today. We thought it might be interesting to have a reference to these symbols together with their meanings so you can identify some of the motifs found in your own rugs.。ELIBELINDE - Hands on Hips。A stylised female figure derived from the Anatolian mother goddess figurines and used as a symbol of motherhood and fertility.。KOÇBOYNUZU - Ram's Horn。A crescent-shaped symbol of fertility, heroism, power and masculinity。BEREKET - Fertility。A kilim motif composed of elibelinde and koçboynuzu motifs arranged to include various protective symbols. Stylised representations of multi-grained plants such as wheat, barley, pomegranate, poppy, melon, figs, grapes and mulberry are also used to indicate fertility.。INSAN - Human Figure。A stylised representation used to commemorate a person, to express the hope for having a child, or to imply the expectation of a baby.。SAÇBAĞI - Hair Band。A rug motif, evolved as a symbolic representation of the head ornament used by the bride in the wedding ceremonies, which indicates the desire to get married.。KÜPE - Earring。A kilim rug motif resembling the shape of an earring, an indispensable wedding present, used to express the desire for marriage.。BUKAĞI - Fetter。A cuff-shaped motif symbolising the continuity of the family union, the devotion of lovers and the hope that they should always stay together.。SANDIKLI - Chest。A motif which symbolises the trousseau chest of a young woman and stands for the desire to get married and having a child. In some cases the motif symbolises death and a coffin.。AŞK VE BIRLEŞIM - Love and Unison。A rug motif inherited from the Far East, generally known by the name of Ying-Yang and used to indicate the harmony between a man and a woman。YILDIZ - Star。A rug motif used to express happiness and fertility, based on the fact that the size pointed star, generally known as the Soloman's Seal, is used to symbolise the womb of the mother goddess figurines. The star motifs with eight or more points are used on the Anatolian weaves.。IBRIK - Ewer。A motif stylised in the form of a water container, symbolising purity and purification and used also as a symbol of pregnancy.。SU YOLU - Running Water。A theme indicating the importance of water in the life of mankind. Motifs in the forms of meanders, clouds and even vases and ewers are all different expressions of the same theme. The pattern of running water varies according to the material on which it is applied. When carved on stone, it assumes an angular shape, while it is curvilinear or triangular on weavings.。PITRAK - Burdock。A motif derived from a plant which is believed to be capable of warding off the evil eye. The fact that the term "like a burdock" means full of flowers, account for the use of the motif as a symbol of abundance.。EL, PARMAK, TARAK - Hand, Finger, Comb。Rug motifs which are composed of five lines or five dots are based on the Anatolian belief that the number five, ie the number of fingers on a hand, serves as a protection against the evil eye. The Hand motif is used against a spell or evil eye, where the comb motif is related to the protection of birth and marriage.。MUSKA - Amulet。A rug motif in the shape of written charms which are believed to have magical and religious powers to protect the possessor from dangerous external factors and generally placed in triangular cases.。NAZARLIK - Evil Eye。A motif used to reduce the effect of the evil glance, which is believed to be a power possessed by some people that cause harm, injury, misfortune and even death。ĞOZ - Eye。A stylised eye motif derived from the belief the the best source to prevent the harms caused by the evil glance is the human eye itself.。HAÇ - Cross。A rug or kilim design motif which is used against the evil eye and believed to reduce the power of the evil glance by dividing it into four pieces.。ÇENGEL - Hook。A motif used against the evil eye.。YILAN - Snake。A theme which dates back to the earliest history of mankind. The motive is used with protective purposes, while a black snake is the symbol of happiness and fertility.。EJDER - Dragon。A mythological theme where a winged creature stylised with feet of a lion and tail of a snake is believed to be the master of air and water, the cause of lunar eclipse, the guard of treasures and secret objects as well as the tree of life. A related theme is the fight of the dragon and the Phoenix which is believed to produce fertile rains of spring and where the dragon is stylised as a cloud.。AKREP - Scorpion。A Kilim or Rug motif used as a protection against the scorpion, sometimes used to represent a dragon.。KURT AĞZI, KURT IZI - Wolf's Mouth, Wolf's Track。A motif used as a protection against the wolves, which is the primary threat for the cattle breeding nomadic and semi nomadic tribes.。CANAVAR AYAĞI - Monster's Feet。The local name for the motif which symbolise the dragon.。HAYAT AĞACI - Tree of Life。A theme which stands for the wish of immortality or the hope for life after death. Stylisation of various plants, such as cypress, date, palm, pomegranate, fig, olive, wine, beech and oak, are used to symbolise the tree of life.。ÇIÇEK - Flower。A rug motif generally used on the borders of Kilims composed of stylised roses, carnations, tulips and hyacinths which resemble the garden of Eden. The Tulip is also used to express the expectation of a son.。IM - Family Signs。Rug Motifs which stand for the names of various Turkish tribes.。KUŞ - Bird。A kilim, rug or carpet motif which is loaded with various meanings, ranging from good luck to bad luck; happiness, joy and love; the soul of the dead; women; longing; an expectation of news; power and strength.Rug Motifs, Symbols & Meaning。There are so many different symbols and motifs found in Rugs and Kilims across the world, most of which date back hundreds of years but are still being used by carpet weavers today. We thought it might be interesting to have a reference to these symbols together with their meanings so you can identify some of the motifs found in your own rugs.。ELIBELINDE - Hands on Hips。A stylised female figure derived from the Anatolian mother goddess figurines and used as a symbol of motherhood and fertility.。KOÇBOYNUZU - Ram's Horn。A crescent-shaped symbol of fertility, heroism, power and masculinity。BEREKET - Fertility。A kilim motif composed of elibelinde and koçboynuzu motifs arranged to include various protective symbols. Stylised representations of multi-grained plants such as wheat, barley, pomegranate, poppy, melon, figs, grapes and mulberry are also used to indicate fertility.。INSAN - Human Figure。A stylised representation used to commemorate a person, to express the hope for having a child, or to imply the expectation of a baby.。SAÇBAĞI - Hair Band。A rug motif, evolved as a symbolic representation of the head ornament used by the bride in the wedding ceremonies, which indicates the desire to get married.。KÜPE - Earring。A kilim rug motif resembling the shape of an earring, an indispensable wedding present, used to express the desire for marriage.。BUKAĞI - Fetter。A cuff-shaped motif symbolising the continuity of the family union, the devotion of lovers and the hope that they should always stay together.。SANDIKLI - Chest。A motif which symbolises the trousseau chest of a young woman and stands for the desire to get married and having a child. In some cases the motif symbolises death and a coffin.。AŞK VE BIRLEŞIM - Love and Unison。A rug motif inherited from the Far East, generally known by the name of Ying-Yang and used to indicate the harmony between a man and a woman。YILDIZ - Star。A rug motif used to express happiness and fertility, based on the fact that the size pointed star, generally known as the Soloman's Seal, is used to symbolise the womb of the mother goddess figurines. The star motifs with eight or more points are used on the Anatolian weaves.。IBRIK - Ewer。A motif stylised in the form of a water container, symbolising purity and purification and used also as a symbol of pregnancy.。SU YOLU - Running Water。A theme indicating the importance of water in the life of mankind. Motifs in the forms of meanders, clouds and even vases and ewers are all different expressions of the same theme. The pattern of running water varies according to the material on which it is applied. When carved on stone, it assumes an angular shape, while it is curvilinear or triangular on weavings.。PITRAK - Burdock。A motif derived from a plant which is believed to be capable of warding off the evil eye. The fact that the term "like a burdock" means full of flowers, account for the use of the motif as a symbol of abundance.。EL, PARMAK, TARAK - Hand, Finger, Comb。Rug motifs which are composed of five lines or five dots are based on the Anatolian belief that the number five, ie the number of fingers on a hand, serves as a protection against the evil eye. The Hand motif is used against a spell or evil eye, where the comb motif is related to the protection of birth and marriage.。MUSKA - Amulet。A rug motif in the shape of written charms which are believed to have magical and religious powers to protect the possessor from dangerous external factors and generally placed in triangular cases.。NAZARLIK - Evil Eye。A motif used to reduce the effect of the evil glance, which is believed to be a power possessed by some people that cause harm, injury, misfortune and even death。ĞOZ - Eye。A stylised eye motif derived from the belief the the best source to prevent the harms caused by the evil glance is the human eye itself.。HAÇ - Cross。A rug or kilim design motif which is used against the evil eye and believed to reduce the power of the evil glance by dividing it into four pieces.。ÇENGEL - Hook。A motif used against the evil eye.。YILAN - Snake。A theme which dates back to the earliest history of mankind. The motive is used with protective purposes, while a black snake is the symbol of happiness and fertility.。EJDER - Dragon。A mythological theme where a winged creature stylised with feet of a lion and tail of a snake is believed to be the master of air and water, the cause of lunar eclipse, the guard of treasures and secret objects as well as the tree of life. A related theme is the fight of the dragon and the Phoenix which is believed to produce fertile rains of spring and where the dragon is stylised as a cloud.。AKREP - Scorpion。A Kilim or Rug motif used as a protection against the scorpion, sometimes used to represent a dragon.。KURT AĞZI, KURT IZI - Wolf's Mouth, Wolf's Track。A motif used as a protection against the wolves, which is the primary threat for the cattle breeding nomadic and semi nomadic tribes.。CANAVAR AYAĞI - Monster's Feet。The local name for the motif which symbolise the dragon.。HAYAT AĞACI - Tree of Life。A theme which stands for the wish of immortality or the hope for life after death. Stylisation of various plants, such as cypress, date, palm, pomegranate, fig, olive, wine, beech and oak, are used to symbolise the tree of life.。ÇIÇEK - Flower。A rug motif generally used on the borders of Kilims composed of stylised roses, carnations, tulips and hyacinths which resemble the garden of Eden. The Tulip is also used to express the expectation of a son.。IM - Family Signs。Rug Motifs which stand for the names of various Turkish tribes.。KUŞ - Bird。A kilim, rug or carpet motif which is loaded with various meanings, ranging from good luck to bad luck; happiness, joy and love; the soul of the dead; women; longing; an expectation of news; power and strength.。Turkish Anatolian Rug。This article is about pile-woven Anatolian rugs. For flat-woven rugs。Anatolian rug is a term of convenience, commonly used today to denote rugs and carpets woven in Anatolia (or Asia minor) and its adjacent regions. 。Geographically, its area of production can be compared to the territories which were historically dominated by the Ottoman Empire. 。It denotes a knotted, pile-woven floor or wall covering which is produced for home use, local sale, and export. Together with the flat-woven kilim,。 Anatolian rugs represent an essential part of the regional culture, which is officially understood as the Culture of Turkey today,[1]。 and derives from the ethnic, religious and cultural pluralism of one of the most ancient centres of human civilisation.。Rug weaving represents a traditional craft dating back to prehistoric times. Rugs were woven much earlier than even the oldest 。surviving rugs like the Pazyryk rug would suggest. During its long history, the art and craft of the woven carpet has absorbed 。and integrated different cultural traditions. Traces of Byzantine design can be observed in Anatolian rugs; Turkic peoples migrating from Central Asia,。 as well as Armenian people, Caucasian and Kurdic tribes either living in, or migrating to Anatolia at different times in history contributed。 their traditional motifs and ornaments. The arrival of Islam and the development of the Islamic art has profoundly influenced the。 Anatolian rug design. Its ornaments and patterns thus reflect the political history and social diversity of the area. However, 。scientific research was unable, as yet, to attribute any particular design feature to any specific ethnic or regional tradition,。 or even to differentiate between nomadic and village design patterns.[2]。Within the group of oriental carpets, the Anatolian rug is distinguished by particular characteristics of its dyes and 。colours, motifs, textures and techniques. Examples range in size from small pillows (yastik) to large, room-sized carpets.。 The earliest surviving examples of Anatolian rugs known today date from the thirteenth century. Distinct types of rugs have 。been woven ever since in court manufactures and provincial workshops, village homes, tribal settlements, or in the nomad's tent. 。Rugs were simultaneously produced at all different levels of society, mainly using sheep wool, cotton and natural dyes. 。Anatolian rugs are most often tied with symmetrical knots, which were so widely used in the area that Western rug dealers。 in the early 20th century adopted the term "Turkish" or "Ghiordes" knot for the technique. From the 1870s onwards, 。the Ottoman court manufactures also produced silk-piled rugs, sometimes with inwoven threads of gold or silver, 。but the traditional material of the majority of Anatolian rugs was hand-spun, naturally-dyed wool.。In Europe, Anatolian rugs were frequently depicted in Renaissance paintings, often in a context of dignity, prestige and luxury. 。Political contacts and trade intensified between Western Europe and the Islamic world after the 13th century AD. When direct trade。 was established with the Ottoman Empire during the 14th century, all kinds of carpets were at first indiscriminately given the。 trade name of "Turkish" carpets, regardless of their actual place of manufacture. Since the late nineteenth century, oriental 。rugs have been subject to art historic and scientific interest in the Western world.[3][4][5] The richness and cultural diversity。 of rug weaving were gradually better understood. More recently, also flat woven carpets (Kilim, Soumak, Cicim, Zili) have 。attracted the interest of collectors and scientists.。The art and craft of the Anatolian rug underwent serious changes by the introduction of synthetic dyes from the last third。 of the 19th century onwards.。 The mass production of cheap rugs designed for commercial success had brought the ancient tradition close to extinction.。 In the late twentieth century, projects like the DOBAG Carpet Initiative have successfully revived the tradition of Anatolian 。rug weaving using hand-spun, naturally-dyed wool and traditional designs。History。The origin of carpet weaving remains unknown, as carpets are subject to use, wear, and destruction by insects and rodents. 。Controversy arose over the accuracy of the claim[7] that the oldest records of flat woven kilims come from the Çatalhöyük。 excavations, dated to circa 7000 BC.[8] The excavators' report[9] remained unconfirmed, as it states that the wall paintings 。depicting kilim motifs had disintegrated shortly after their exposure.。The history of rug weaving in Anatolia must be understood in the context of the country's political and social history. 。Anatolia was home to ancient civilizations, such as the Hittites, the Phrygians, the Assyrians, the Ancient Persians, the Armenians, 。the Ancient Greeks, and the Byzantine Empire. The city of Byzantium was founded in the seventh century BC by the Greek, and rebuilt as a 。Roman city in 303 AD by the Roman emperor Constantine I. Rug weaving was probably known already in Anatolia during this time, 。but no carpets are known today which can be dated back to this time. In 1071 AD, the Seljuq Alp Arslan defeated the Roman。 Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes at Manzikert. This is regarded as the beginning of the ascendancy of the Seljuq Turks.。Seljuq rugs: Travelers' reports and the Konya fragments。In the early fourteenth century, Marco Polo wrote in the account of his travels:。...et ibi fiunt soriani et tapeti pulchriores de mundo et pulchrioris coloris.。"...and here they make the most beautiful silks and carpets in the world, and with the most beautiful colours."[10]。Coming from Persia, Polo travelled from Sivas to Kayseri. Abu'l-Fida, citing Ibn Sa'id al-Maghribi refers to rug export 。from Anatolian cities in the late 13th century: "That's where Turkoman carpets are made, which are exported to all other countries".。 He and the Moroccan merchant Ibn Battuta mention Aksaray as a major rug weaving center in the early-to-mid-14th century.。The earliest surviving woven rugs were found in Konya, Beyşehir and Fostat, and were dated to the 13th century. These carpets 。from the Anatolian Seljuq Period (1243–1302) are regarded as the first group of Anatolian rugs. Eight fragments were found in。 1905 by F.R. Martin[11] in the Alaeddin Mosque in Konya, four in the Eşrefoğlu Mosque in Beyşehir in Konya province by R.M. 。Riefstahl in 1925.[12] More fragments were found in Fostat, today a suburb of the city of Cairo.[13]。Judging by their original size (Riefstahl reports a carpet up to 6 m long), the Konya carpets must have been produced in town manufactories,。 as looms of this size can hardly have been set up in a nomadic or village home. Where exactly these carpets were woven is unknown. 。The field patterns of the Konya rugs are mostly geometric, and small in relation to the carpet size. Similar patterns are arranged。 in diagonal rows: Hexagons with plain, or hooked outlines; squares filled with stars, with interposed kufic-like ornaments;。 hexagons in diamonds composed of rhomboids filled with stylized flowers and leaves. Their main borders often contain kufic ornaments.。 The corners are not "resolved", which means that the border design is cut off, and does not continue diagonally around the corners. 。The colours (blue, red, green, to a lesser extent also white, brown, yellow) are subdued, frequently two shades of the same colour are。 opposed to each other. Nearly all carpet fragments show different patterns and ornaments.。The Beyşehir rugs are closely related to the Konya specimen in design and colour.[3] In contrast to the "animal carpets" of the following。 period, depictions of animals are rarely seen in the Seljuq fragments. Rows of horned quadrupeds placed opposite to each other, or birds。 beside a tree can be recognized on some fragments.。The style of the Seljuq rugs has parallels amongst the architectural decoration of contemporaneous mosques such as those at Divriği, Sivas,。 and Erzurum, and may be related to Byzantine art.[14] Today, the rugs are kept at the Mevlana Museum in Konya, and at the Turkish and 。Islamic Arts Museum in Istanbul.。Rugs of the Anatolian Beyliks。Early in the thirteenth century, the territory of Anatolia was invaded by Mongols. The weakening of Seljuq rule allowed Turkmen tribes 。known as the Oghuz Turks to organize themselves into independent sovereignties, the Beyliks. These were later integrated into the Ottoman 。Empire by the sultans Bayezid I (1389-1402), Murad II (1421-1481), Mehmed the Conqueror (1451-1481), and Selim I (1512-1520).。Literary sources like the Book of Dede Korkut confirm that the Turkoman tribes produced carpets in Anatolia. What types of carpets were woven 。by the Turkoman Beyliks remains unknown, since we are unable to identify them. One of the Turkoman tribes of the Beylik group, the Tekke 。settled in South-western Anatolia in the eleventh century, and moved back to the Caspian sea later. The Tekke tribes of Turkmenistan, 。living around Merv and the Amu Darya during the 19th century and earlier, wove a distinct type of carpet characterized by stylized floral 。motifs called guls in repeating rows.。Ottoman carpets。Around 1300 AD, a group of Turkmen tribes under Suleiman and Ertugrul moved westward. Under Osman I, they founded the Ottoman Empire in 。northwestern Anatolia; in 1326, the Ottomans conquered Bursa, which became the first capital of the Ottoman state. By the late 15th century,。 the Ottoman state had become a major power. In 1517, the Egyptian Sultanate of the Mamluks was overthrown in the Ottoman–Mamluk war.。Suleiman the Magnificent, the tenth Sultan (1520-1566), invaded Persia and forced the Persian Shah Tahmasp (1524–1576) to move his capital 。from Tabriz to Qazvin, until the Peace of Amasya was agreed upon in 1555.。As the political and economical influence grew of the Ottoman Empire, Istanbul became a meeting point of diplomats, merchants and artists. 。During Suleiman I.'s reign, artists and artisans of different specialities worked together in court manufactures (Ehl-i Hiref). Calligraphy。 and miniature painting were performed in the calligraphy workshops, or nakkaşhane, and influenced carpet weaving. Besides Istanbul, Bursa, 。Iznik, Kütahya and Ushak were homes to manufactories of different specializations. Bursa became known for its silk cloths and brocades,。 Iznik and Kütahya were famous for ceramics and tiles, Uşak, Gördes, and Ladik for their carpets. The Ushak region, one of the centers of Ottoman 。"court" production, produced some of the finest carpets of the sixteenth century. Holbein and Lotto carpets were woven here. Gold-brocaded。 silk velvet carpets known as Çatma are associated with the old Ottoman capital of Bursa, in Western Anatolia near the Sea of Marmara。15th century "animal" rugs。Very few carpets still exist today which represent the transition between the late Seljuq and early Ottoman period. A traditional Chinese motif, 。the fight between phoenix and dragon, is seen in an Anatolian rug, today at the Pergamon Museum, Berlin. Radiocarbon dating confirmed that the 。"Dragon and Phoenix" carpet was woven in the mid 15th century, during the early Ottoman Empire. It is knotted with symmetric knots. The Chinese。 motif was probably introduced into Islamic art by the Mongols during the thirteenth century.[17] Another carpet showing two medallions with two。 birds besides a tree was found in the Swedish church of Marby. More fragments were found in Fostat, today a suburb of the city of Cairo.[13]。 A carpet with serial bird-and-tree medallions is shown in Sano di Pietro's painting "Marriage of the Virgin" (1448–52).。The "Dragon and Phoenix" and the "Marby" rugs were the only existing examples of Anatolian animal carpets known until 1988. Since then, seven 。more carpets of this type have been found. They survived in Tibetan monasteries and were removed by monks fleeing to Nepal during the Chinese 。cultural revolution. One of these carpets was acquired by the Metropolitan Museum of Art[18] which parallels a painting by the Sienese artist 。Gregorio di Cecco: "The Marriage of the Virgin", 1423.[19] It shows large confronted animals, each with a smaller animal inside.。More animal carpets were depicted in Italian paintings of the 14th and 15th century, and thus represent the earliest Oriental carpets shown in。 Renaissance paintings. Although only few examples for early Anatolian carpets have survived, European paintings inform the knowledge about late 。Seljuk and early Ottoman carpets. By the end of the 15th century, geometrical ornaments became more frequent.。Holbein and Lotto carpets。Based on the distribution and size of their geometric medallions, a distinction is made between "large" and "small" Holbein carpets. The small 。Holbein type is characterized by small octagons, frequently including a star, which are distributed over the field in a regular pattern, surrounded by 。arabesques. The large Holbein type show two or three large medallions, often including eight-pointed stars. Their field is often covered in minute 。floral ornaments. The MAK in Vienna, the Louvre in Paris, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art keep particularly beautiful Ushak carpets.。Lotto carpets show a yellow grid of geometric arabesques, with interchanging cruciform, octagonal, or diamond shaped elements. The oldest examples。 have "kufic" borders. The field is always red, and is covered with bright yellow leaves on an underlying rapport of octagonal or rhombiform elements.。 Carpets of various sizes up to 6 meters square are known. Ellis distinguishes three principal design groups for Lotto carpets: the Anatolian-style,。 kilim-style, and ornamental style.[20]。Holbein and Lotto carpets have little in common with decorations and ornaments seen on Ottoman art objects other than carpets.[21] Briggs demonstrated。 similarities between both types of carpets, and Timurid carpets depicted in miniature paintings. The Holbein and Lotto carpets may represent a design。 tradition dating back to the Timurid period。Ushak carpets。Star Ushak carpets were woven in large formats. They are characterized by large dark blue star shaped primary medallions in infinite repeat on a red 。ground field containing a secondary floral scroll. The design was likely influenced by northwest Persian book design, or by Persian carpet medallions.。[23] As compared to the medallion Ushak carpets, the concept of the infinite repeat in star Ushak carpets is more accentuated and in keeping with the。 early Turkish design tradition.[24] Because of their strong allusion to the infinite repeat, the star Ushak design can be used on carpets of various 。size and in many varying dimensions.。Medallion Ushak carpets usually have a red or blue field decorated with a floral trellis or leaf tendrils, ovoid primary medallions alternating with 。smaller eight-lobed stars, or lobed medallions, intertwined with floral tracery. Their border frequently contains palmettes on a floral and leaf scroll,。 and pseudo-kufic characters.[25]。Medallion Ushak carpets with their curvilinear patterns significantly depart from the designs of earlier Turkish carpets. Their emergence in the 。sixteenth century hints at a potential impact of Persian designs. Since the Ottoman Turks occupied the former Persian capital of Tabriz in the first 。half of the sixteenth century, they would have knowledge of, and access to Persian medallion carpets. Several examples are known to have been in Turkey 。at an early date, such as the carpet that Erdmann found in the Topkapı Palace.[26] The Ushak carpet medallion, however, conceived as part of an endless repeat,。 represents a specific Turkish idea, and is different from the Persian understanding of a self-contained central medallion.[27]。Star and medallion Ushaks represent an important innovation, as in them, floral ornaments appear in Turkish carpets for the first time. The replacement of。 floral and foliate ornaments by geometrical designs, and the substitution of the infinite repeat by large, centered compositions of ornaments, 。was termed by Kurt Erdmann the "pattern revolution".[28]。Another small group of Ushak carpets is called Double-niche Ushaks. In their design, the corner medallions have been moved closely together, 。so that they form a niche on both ends of the carpet. This has been understood as a prayer rug design, because a pendant resembling a mosque 。lamp is suspended from one of the niches. The resulting design scheme resembles the classical Persian medallion design.。Counterintuitive to the prayer rug design, some of the double niche Ushaks have central medallions as well. Double niche Ushaks thus may。provide an example for the integration of Persian patterns into an older Anatolian design tradition.。Examples are also known of rugs woven in the Ushak area whose fields are covered by ornaments like the Cintamani motif, made of three coloured 。orbs arranged in triangles, often with two wavy bands positioned under each triangle. This motiv usually appears on a white ground. Together。 with the bird and a very small group of so-called scorpion rugs, they form a group of known as "white ground rugs". Bird rugs have an allover。 geometrical field design of repeating quatrefoils enclosing a rosette. Although geometric in design, the pattern has similarities to birds. 。The rugs of the white ground group have been attributed to the nearby town of Selendi, based on an Ottoman official price list (narh defter) 。of 1640 which mentions a "white carpet with leopard design".[30]。Ottoman Cairene rugs。After the 1517 Ottoman conquest of the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt, two different cultures merged, as is seen on Mamluk carpets woven after this date. 。The earlier tradition of the Mamluk carpet used "S" (clockwise) spun and "Z" (anti-clockwise)-plied wool, and a limited palette of colours and shades.。 After the conquest, the Cairene weavers adopted an Ottoman Turkish design.[31] The production of these carpets continued in Egypt, and probably also 。in Anatolia, into the early 17th century.。Transylvanian" rugs。Transylvania, in present-day Romania was part of the Ottoman Empire from 1526-1699. It was an important center for the carpet trade with Europe. 。Carpets were also valued in Transylvania, and Turkish carpets were used as decorative wall furnishings in Christian Protestant churches. Amongst 。others, the Brașov Black Church still shelters a variety of Anatolian carpets, called by convenience "Transylvanian carpets".[33] By their preservation。 in Christian churches, unusual as the setting may be, the carpets were protected from wear and the changes of history, and often remained in excellent。 condition. Amongst these carpets are well-preserved Holbein, Lotto, and Bird Ushak carpets.[34]。The carpets termed "Transsylvanian carpets" by convenience today are of Ottoman origin, and were woven in Anatolia.[34][35] Usually their format is small,。 with borders of oblong, angular cartouches whose centers are filled with stylized, counterchanging vegetal motifs, sometimes interspersed with shorter 。stellated rosettes or cartouches. Their field often has a prayer niche design, with two pairs of vases with flowering branches symmetrically arranged 。towards the horizontal axis. In other examples, the field decor is condensed into medallions of concentric lozenges and rows of flowers. The spandrels 。of the prayer niche contain stiff arabesques or geometrical rosettes and leaves. The ground colour is yellow, red, or dark blue. The Transylvanian church 。records, as well as Netherlandish paintings from the seventeenth century which depict in detail carpets with this design, allow for precise dating。By the time "Transylvanian" carpets appear in Western paintings for the first time, royal and aristocratic subjects had mostly progressed to sit for。 portraits which depict Persian carpets.[38] Less wealthy sitters are still shown with the Turkish types: The 1620 Portrait of Abraham Grapheus 。by Cornelis de Vos, and Thomas de Keyser's "Portrait of an unknown man" (1626) and "Portrait of Constantijn Huyghens and his clerk" (1627) are amongst 。the earliest paintings depicting the "Transylvanian" types of Ottoman Turkish manufactory carpets. Transylvanian vigesimal accounts, customs bills, and 。other archived documents provide evidence that these carpets were exported to Europe in large quantities. Probably the increase in production reflects 。the increasing demand by an upper middle class who now could afford to buy these carpets.[39] Pieter de Hoochs 1663 painting "Portrait of a family making music" 。depicts an Ottoman prayer rug of the "Transylvanian" type.[39]。Anatolian carpets of the "Transylvanian" type were also kept in other European churches in Hungary, Poland, Italy and Germany, whence they were sold, and。 reached European and American museums and private collections. Aside from the Transylvanian churches, the Brukenthal National Museum in Sibiu, 。Romania,[40] the Museum of Fine Arts (Budapest), the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and the Skokloster Castle near Stockholm in Sweden keep important。 collections of "Transylvanian" carpets.。Carpets are rarely found in Anatolia itself from the transitional period between the classical Ottoman era and the nineteenth century. The reason 。for this remains unclear. Carpets which can be reliably dated to the eighteenth century are of a small format. At the same time, western European 。residences were more sparely equipped with Oriental carpets. It seems likely that carpets were not exported in large scale during this time.[41]。19th century: "Mecidi" style, and the Hereke court manufacture。By the end of the eighteenth century, the "turkish baroque" or "mecidi" style developed out of French baroque designs. Carpets were woven after 。the patterns of French Savonnerie and Aubusson tapestry. Sultan Abdülmecid I (1839–1861) built the Dolmabahçe Palace, modelled after the Palace。 of Versailles.。A weaving workshop was established in 1843 in Hereke, a coastal town 60 kilometers from Istanbul on the bay of Izmit.[42] It also supplied the 。royal palaces with silk brocades and other textiles. The Hereke Imperial Factory initially included looms producing cotton fabric. Silk brocades 。and velvets for drapes and upholstery were manufactured at a workshop known as the "kamhane". In 1850 the cotton looms were moved to a factory in。 Bakirköy, west of Istanbul, and jacquard looms were installed in Hereke. Although in the early years the factory produced exclusively for the 。Ottoman palaces, as production increased the woven products were available in the Kapalıçarşı or Grand Bazaar, in the second half of the 19th century.。In 1878 a fire in the factory caused extensive damage, and it was not reopened until 1882. Carpet production began in Hereke in 1891 and expert carpet。 weavers were brought in from the carpet weaving centers of Sivas, Manisa and Ladik. The carpets were all hand woven, and in the early years they were。 either made for the Ottoman palaces or as gifts for visiting statesmen. Later, they were also woven for export.。Hereke carpets are known primarily for their fine weave. Silk thread or fine wool yarn and occasionally gold, silver and cotton thread are used in。 their production. Wool carpets produced for the palace had 60–65 knots per square centimeter, while silk carpets had 80–100 knots.。The oldest Hereke carpets, now exhibited in Topkapı and other palaces in Istanbul, contain a wide variety of colours and designs. The typical 。"palace carpet" features intricate floral designs, including the tulip, daisy, carnation, crocus, rose, lilac, and hyacinth. It often has quarter 。medallions in the corners. The medallion designs of earlier Ushak carpets was widely used at the Hereke factory. These medallions are curved on the。 horizontal axis and taper to points on the vertical axis. Hereke prayer rugs feature patterns of geometric motifs, tendrils and lamps as background 。designs within the representation of a mihrab (prayer niche). Once referring solely to carpets woven at Hereke, the term "Hereke carpet" now refers。 to any high quality carpet woven using similar techniques. Hereke carpets remain among the finest and most valuable examples of woven carpets in the world.。Modern history: Decline and revival。The modern history of carpets and rugs began in the nineteenth century when increasing demand for handmade carpets arose on the international market. 。However, the traditional, hand-woven, naturally dyed Turkish carpet is a very labour-intense product, as each step in its manufacture requires 。considerable time, from the preparation, spinning, dyeing of the wool to setting up the loom, knotting each knot by hand, and finishing the carpet。 before it goes to market. In an attempt to save on resources and cost, and maximise on profit in a competitive market environment, synthetic dyes,。 non-traditional weaving tools like the power loom, and standardized designs were introduced. This led to a rapid breakdown of the tradition,。 resulting in the degeneration of an art which had been cultivated for centuries. The process was recognized by art historians as early as in 1902.[44] 。It is hitherto unknown when exactly this process of degeneration started, but it is observed mainly since the large-scale introduction of synthetic colours。 took place.[45]。In the late twentieth century, the loss of cultural heritage was recognized, and efforts started to revive the tradition. Initiatives were started aiming 。at re-establishing the ancient tradition of carpet weaving from handspun, naturally dyed wool.[46] The return to traditional dyeing and weaving by the。 producers, and the renewed customer interest in these carpets was termed by Eilland as the "Carpet Renaissance".[47] Thus, Anatolian rugs remain。 distinguishable from rugs woven in other regions.。Carpet weaving: Materials, technique, processes。In traditional households, women and girls take up carpet and kilim weaving as a hobby as well as a means of earning money. Women learn their weaving 。skills at an early age, taking months or even years to complete the pile rugs and flat woven kilims that were created for their use in daily life.。 As is true in most weaving cultures, traditionally it is women and girls who are both artisan and weaver。Materials。Makers of handmade rugs use only natural fibres. The most common materials used for the pile are wool, silk and cotton. Nomadic and village weavers 。sometimes also use goat- and camel-hair. Traditionally, spinning is done by hand. Several strands of yarn are then plied together so that the resulting。 yarn is strong enough to be used for weaving.。Sheeps wool is the most frequently used pile material in a Turkish rug because it is soft, durable, easy to work with and not too expensive. It is less。 susceptible to dirt than cotton, does not react electrostatically, and insulates against both heat and cold. This combination of characteristics is 。not found in other natural fibers. Wool comes from the coats of sheep. Natural wool comes in colors of white, brown, fawn, yellow and gray, which are 。sometimes used directly without going through a dyeing process. Sheeps wool also takes dyes well. Traditionally, wool used for Turkish carpets is spun。 by hand. Before the yarn can be used for weaving, several strands have to be twisted together for additional strength.。Cotton is used primarily in the foundation, the warps and wefts of rugs. Cotton is stronger than wool, and, when used for the foundation, makes a carpet。 lie flat on the ground, as it is not as easily distorted as woolen strings. Some weavers, such as Turkomans, also use cotton for weaving small white 。details into the rug in order to create contrast.。Wool-on-wool (wool pile on wool warp and weft): This is the most traditional type of Anatolian rug. Wool-on-wool carpet weaving dates back further and 。utilizes more traditional design-motifs than its counterparts. Because wool cannot be spun extra finely, the knot count is often not as high as seen in a 。"wool-on-cotton" or "silk-on-silk" rug. Wool-on-wool carpets are more frequently attributed to tribal or nomadic production.。Wool-on-cotton (wool pile on cotton warp and weft): This particular combination facilitates a more intricate design-pattern than a "wool-on-wool carpet",。 as cotton can be finely spun which allows for a higher knot-count. A "wool-on-cotton" rug is often indicative of a town weaver. Due to their higher pile 。density, wool-on-cotton carpets are heavier than wool-on-wool rugs.。Silk-on-silk (silk pile on silk warp and weft): This is the most intricate type of carpet, featuring a very fine weave. Knot counts on some superior-quality。 "silk-on-silk" rugs can be as high as 28×28 knots/cm2. Knot counts for silk carpets intended for floor coverings should[citation needed] be no greater。 than 100 knots per square cm, or 10×10 knots/cm2. Carpets woven with a knot count greater than 10×10 knots/cm2 are intended to be used as a wall or。 pillow tapestry, because their fabric is less resistant to mechanical stress. These very fine, intricately-woven rugs and carpets are usually no larger than 3×3 m.。Dyes and dyeing。Traditional dyes used for Anatolian carpets are obtained from plants, insects and minerals. In 1856, the English chemist William Henry Perkin invented。 the first aniline dye, mauveine. A variety of other synthetic dyes were invented thereafter. Cheap, readily prepared and easy to use as they were 。compared to natural dyes, their use is documented in Ushak carpets already by the mid 1860s. The tradition of natural dyeing was recently revived, 。based on chemical analyses of natural dyes from antique wool samples, and experimental re-creation of dyeing recipes and processes, in the early 1980s。According to these analyses, natural dyes used in Anatolian rugs include:。Red from Madder (Rubia tinctorum) roots,。Yellow from plants, including onion (Allium cepa), several chamomile species (Anthemis, Matricaria chamomilla), and Euphorbia,。Black: Oak apples, Oak acorns, Tanner's sumach,。Green by double dyeing with Indigo and yellow dye,。Orange by double dyeing with madder red and yellow dye,。Blue: Indigo gained from Indigofera tinctoria.。The dyeing process involves the preparation of the yarn in order to make it susceptible for the proper dyes by immersion in a mordant, 。immersing the yarn in the dyeing solution, and leaving it to dry exposed to air and sunlight. Some colours, especially dark brown, require 。iron mordants, which can damage or fade the fabric. This often results in faster pile wear in areas dyed in dark brown colours, and may create。 a relief effect in antique Turkish carpets.。With modern synthetic dyes, nearly every colour and shade can be obtained so that it is nearly impossible to identify, in a finished carpet, 。whether natural or artificial dyes were used. Modern carpets can be woven with carefully selected synthetic colours, and provide artistic and 。utilitarian value.[52]。The Anatolian rug is distinct from carpets of other provenience in that it makes more pronounced use of primary colours. Western Anatolian carpets。 prefer red and blue colours, whereas Central Anatolian use more red and yellow, with sharp contrasts set in white.[。Weaving and finishing。A variety of tools are needed in the construction of a handmade rug. A loom, a horizontal or upright framework, is needed to mount the vertical。 warps into which the pile nodes are knotted, and one or more shoots of horizontal wefts are woven ("shot") in after each row of knots in order 。to further stabilize the fabric. Wefts can be either undyed or dyed, mostly in red and blue.。The pile knots are usually knotted by hand. Most rugs from Anatolia utilize the symmetrical Turkish double knot. Each knot is made on two warps. 。With this form of knotting, each end of the pile thread is twisted around two warp threads at regular intervals, so that both ends of the knot。 come up between two strands on one side of the carpet. The thread is then pulled downwards and cut with a knife.。After a row of knots has been inserted, one or two, sometimes more, rows of wefts are woven in, and the fabric is compacted by beating with a。 heavy comb. Once the carpet is finished, it is cut from the loom. The sides or selvages are usually overcast in wool. The selvages consist of up。 to ten warp threads. Especially village and nomadic rugs have flat-woven kilim ends, sometimes including pile-woven tribal signs or village crests. 。The pile of the carpet is shorn with special knives in order to obtain an equal surface. In some carpets, a relief effect is obtained by clipping 。the pile unevenly. Finally, the carpet is washed before it is used, or goes to the market.。The upright pile of Turkish rugs usually falls in one direction, as knots are always pulled down before the string of pile yarn is cut off and 。work resumes on the next knot, piling row after row of knots on top of each other. When touching a carpet, this creates a feeling similar to stroking。 an animal's fur. This can be used to determine where the weaver has started knotting the pile. The pile in Turkish carpets is usually between 2 and 4 mm thick.。 Coarse nomadic rugs like the Yürük rugs, can be as thick as 12 mm. A special bedding carpet called yatak may reach a pile thickness of 20 to 25 mm.。Origins and traditions of Anatolian rug design。Anatolian rug design integrates different strands of traditions. Specific elements are closely related to the history of Turkic peoples and。 their interaction with surrounding cultures, in their central Asian origin as well as during their migration, and in Anatolia itself. The 。most important cultural influences came from the Chinese culture, and from Islam. Carpets from the Bergama and Konya areas are considered 。as most closely related to earlier Anatolian rugs, and their significance in the history of the art is now better understood。Central Asian traditions。he early history of the Turkic peoples in Central Asia is closely related to China. Contacts between Turks and China are documented since 。the early Han dynasty.。In his essay on centralized designs, Thompson[55] relates the central medallion pattern, frequently found in Anatolian rugs to the 。"lotus pedestal" and "cloud collar (yun chien)" motifs, used in the art of Buddhist Asia, which he dated back to Yuan dynasty China. Recently,。 Brüggemann further elaborated on the relationship between Chinese and Turkic motifs like the "cloud band" ornament, the origin of which he 。relates to the Han dynasty.[56] The early Anatolian "Phoenix and Dragon rug" depicts another traditional motif of Chinese mythology, the fight 。between the phoenix (Fenghuang) and the dragon。Romano-Hellenistic traditions。There are documentary records of carpets being used by the ancient Greeks. Homer writes in Ilias XVII,350 that the body of Patroklos is covered。 with a "splendid carpet". In Odyssey Book VII and X "carpets" are mentioned. Pliny the Elder wrote (nat. VIII, 48) that carpets ("polymita")。 were invented in Alexandria. It is unknown whether these were flatweaves or pile weaves, as no detailed technical information can be gained from the texts.。Athenaeus of Naucratis describes luxurious carpets in his Deipnosophists, written about 230 AD.。"And under these there were strewed purple carpets of the finest wool, with the carpet pattern on both sides. And there were handsomely embroidered。 rugs very beautifully elaborated on them." (Book V, p. 314)。"[...] to lie on a couch with silver feet, with a smooth Sardian carpet spread under it of the most expensive description." (Book VI, p. 401)[58]。A carpet "with the pattern on both sides" could either be a flat-woven, or pile-woven carpet. Whether "purple" refers to the colour of the fabric。 or to the dyestuff (either Tyrian purple or madder red could have been used) remains unknown. The town of Sardis lies in Western Anatolia, thus, 。this may be the earliest reference to carpet production in the region of Asia minor.。Anatolia was ruled by the Roman Empire since 133 BCE. The East Roman (Byzantine) and Sasanian Empires have coexisted for more than 400 years. 。Artistically, both empires have developed similar styles and decorative vocabulary, as exemplified by mosaics and architecture of Roman Antioc。

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Dining Room Rug,Turkish Bedroom Carpet,Living Room Rug,Hand Made Kitchen Rug,Genuine Company Rug,Vintage Study Room Rug 8/' 5/'/' x 3/' 8/'/' MEZ\u0130

Dining Room Rug,Turkish Bedroom Carpet,Living Room Rug,Hand Made Kitchen Rug,Genuine Company Rug,Vintage Study Room Rug 8' 5'' x 3' 8'' MEZ\u0130

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